What’s the Difference Between Radiology & Medical Imaging?

Oct 27, 2023 2:00:00 AM / by Chad Hutchison

In the medical field, terms like "radiology" and "medical imaging" are often used interchangeably. However, while closely related, they are not identical. 

This blog aims to elucidate these differences, providing clarity for medical professionals and patients. By understanding the distinctions, one can better navigate the realm of diagnostics and appreciate the significance each holds in modern medicine.

What Is Radiology?

Radiology is a specialized branch of medicine that uses imaging techniques to diagnose, manage, and treat diseases within the body. It shouldn't be confused with medical imaging, which refers specifically to the technology and techniques used to create images of the body. While all radiology involves medical imaging, not all medical imaging is used for radiological purposes.

The realm of radiology has seen significant advancements over the years, evolving into distinct branches, each catering to specific diagnostic or therapeutic needs.

Diagnostic Radiology

Diagnostic radiology serves as the foundation of this medical field, enabling healthcare professionals to visualize structures within the human body. Expert diagnostic radiologists can accurately diagnose specific conditions, monitor a patient's response to treatments, and conduct preventive screenings for various diseases, including heart disease and cancer.

Interventional Radiology

Whereas diagnostic radiology provides insights into the body's internal structures, interventional radiology takes a more proactive approach. Using imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound as navigational aids, interventional radiologists guide medical procedures with exceptional precision. These real-time images allow for the accurate positioning of instruments like catheters and wires within the body, leading to minimally invasive procedures. 

Radiation Oncology

Not all radiation used in imaging is benign. In the hands of radiation oncologists, radiation becomes a potent therapeutic tool. This branch of radiology revolves around the use of radiation therapy to treat cancers and some noncancerous conditions. By directing strong beams of energy at affected regions, radiation therapy aims to destroy cancer cells or inhibit their growth. Radiation oncologists are instrumental in deciding the best treatment plans, optimizing radiation doses to target cancer effectively while minimizing any potential harm to surrounding healthy tissues.

What Is Medical Imaging?

Medical imaging encompasses a range of techniques used to create images of various body parts, assisting healthcare professionals in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating various conditions. While radiology is a subset of medical imaging, the broader umbrella of medical imaging holds other significant modalities. Let's explore the primary types of medical imaging to better appreciate the spectrum of diagnostic tools available.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. It's especially useful for imaging soft tissues like the brain, muscles, and joints without the use of ionizing radiation.

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

CT scans, often referred to as CAT scans, use X-rays to capture cross-sectional images of the body. These detailed slices can be combined to give a 3D view, helping doctors assess areas like the chest, abdomen, and pelvis with high precision.


Also known as sonography, ultrasound utilizes high-frequency sound waves to produce images of structures within the body. It's often used during pregnancy to view the fetus but also has applications in visualizing organs, blood flow, and soft tissues.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan

A PET scan is a nuclear medicine imaging test that helps show how your tissues and organs function. It often combines with CT in a PET-CT scan to provide detailed anatomical and functional information.


Fluoroscopy produces real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body using a continuous X-ray beam. It's valuable for guiding a variety of diagnostic and interventional procedures.

Medical imaging is integral to modern medicine, offering clinicians a non-invasive window into the human body. Each modality has its strengths, ensuring that doctors have the best tools at their disposal to diagnose and treat a myriad of conditions.

What Are the Key Differences Between Radiology and Medical Imaging?

Understanding the distinction between radiology and medical imaging is essential for both healthcare professionals and patients. While the terms are often used interchangeably, they denote different, albeit closely related, aspects of diagnostic medicine.

Definition and Scope

Radiology is a medical specialty focusing on the use of imaging techniques to both diagnose and treat diseases. Radiologists undergo specialized training to interpret images and carry out interventions. Medical imaging, on the other hand, is a broader term that encompasses all methods and technologies used to visualize the human body, of which radiology is a subset.

Use of Ionizing Radiation

While many radiological techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, and fluoroscopy, utilize ionizing radiation, not all medical imaging does. MRI and ultrasound, for instance, are non-ionizing imaging modalities falling under the broader umbrella of medical imaging.

Interpretation and Procedure

Radiologists are trained physicians who interpret medical images, provide reports, and sometimes perform interventions. In contrast, medical imaging can involve a range of professionals, including sonographers, MRI technologists, and nuclear medicine technologists, who specialize in capturing the images but might not interpret them.

Therapeutic vs. Diagnostic

Radiology doesn't stop at diagnosis. Interventional radiologists use imaging guidance to perform minimally invasive procedures for therapeutic purposes, like angioplasty or tumor ablation. Medical imaging, as a whole, predominantly leans toward diagnosis, although certain modalities can have their own therapeutic applications.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is MRI Considered Radiology?

Yes, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) falls under the domain of radiology. Though it doesn't use ionizing radiation like X-rays or CT scans, MRI is a radiological modality. Radiologists are trained to interpret MRI images, helping diagnose a variety of conditions by providing detailed views of soft tissues, organs, and other internal structures.

Final Thoughts

Distinguishing between radiology and medical imaging is crucial for understanding the broader medical landscape. While both serve essential functions in diagnosis and patient care, their roles and techniques can differ. 

If you're looking to equip your facility with top-tier radiology equipment or need expert guidance on the best imaging solutions, don't hesitate to explore our selection at Maven Imaging. We're here to ensure that you're well-equipped to offer the best care to your patients.

Tags: x-ray equipment

Chad Hutchison

Written by Chad Hutchison

Founder and CEO of Maven Imaging, Chad Hutchison has been in the medical imaging equipment market since 2003. As his business grew, he pioneered buying and selling medical equipment online and eventually began offering leasing and financing to meet market demands and help customers. His market expertise goes beyond traditional medical imaging and finance support, as he’s spearheading cloud-based lending solutions for vendors across the sector.